Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have a large amount of logic, memory, and routing resources and have been used in ASIC prototyping and high-end system development. These devices include up to 80,000 logic elements and on-chip RAM with a capacity of several Mbits. These devices typically contain complex functions consisting of commercially available intellectual property (IP) cores and custom logic devices designed to enable high-speed data path and data processing functions.
In simpler systems, FPGAs are often used as a tool for performing simple logic functions such as connecting logic and system control functions, helping to integrate other functions on the board. These devices have less logic and memory resources and have lower overall performance. However, for some target applications, they have advantages over high-performance devices in terms of cost, and the provided performance is sufficient to meet the requirements. Nowadays, it is not difficult to find an embedded processor that contains the various peripheral devices required by your system. So, do you still need to use custom peripheral devices or interfaces? The processor may not be the architecture of your choice, and the performance may not meet your requirements. In many cases, there are still some typical embedded processors that cannot be implemented on-chip. If an external peripheral device is used, it may not be compatible with processors using older technologies, which must be used in order to write older software.
A processor with multiple variants poses a problem: Each variant requires the development of its own unique mask set and test program. However, the manufacturing cost of the mask group is becoming more and more expensive, which will reduce the variant of the processor model because the embedded processor manufacturer strives to make the configuration of its product library more reasonable for the purpose of reducing the cost.
High-end and low-cost FPGAs have a unique combination of features that are specific to a particular type of device and specific use. Of course, because FPGAs are programmable and have great flexibility, there is no "just-in-the-box" end market for any particular system. Due to memory requirements, high-end FPGAs may be required in small systems, and low-cost devices may be required in high-performance systems. High-end devices such as the Altera Stratix series use logic-locked loops (PLLs) to incorporate logic devices and a large number of on-chip SRAMs, dedicated digital signal processor (DSP) functional blocks, numerous high-bandwidth I/O standards, and on-board clock generation circuits. Combine together. The on-chip SRAM is particularly useful in buffering data transmitted from a complex peripheral device to an external interface so that data transfer from the FPGA to the processor can be performed asynchronously with the operation of an external signal source to receive data. . When using high-speed peripheral devices (especially those peripheral devices that run communication protocols), it is most important to ensure bandwidth requirements.
Stratix digital signal processing devices integrate multipliers and adders to help perform signal processing algorithms. Adopting these components in the FPGA can make the processor no longer take on complex functions. Performing these complex functions on the processor is not only inefficient, but also may reduce the final system performance. This use of coprocessors can also use SRAM by using shared data memory to transfer data between asynchronously operating processors and signal processing functional elements.
Stratix FPGAs provide a wide range of high-performance I/O standards that enable data transfer between FPGAs and data sources at very high data rates or between FPGAs and embedded processors that support a compatible interface standard. There are several processors that provide on-board Hypertransport and/or RapidIO interfaces. These interfaces can transfer data by using a matching IP core in a peripheral FPGA. Both interfaces can be used as a partner from Altera or its AMPP. One of the full parameterized IP cores to use. This is a feasible method for high-speed data transfer between embedded processors and peripheral FPGAs.
The use of phase-locked loops allows FPGAs with different internal clocks to operate normally. Therefore, the processor interface and the peripheral devices implemented in the FPGA can have different operating speeds. Similarly, shared SRAM can be used to achieve speeds between the clock domains. Matching and synchronization. For systems requiring lower cost, a device from the Altera Cyclone family provides a moderate amount of logic resources and memory, a PLL, and a reduced set of I/O standards. This type of device family is designed to achieve overall low cost and sacrifices some high-end features. Low-cost devices are less dense and are therefore more suitable for implementing peripheral devices that use the system address bus method to connect to the processor, or those that may be used as on-chip peripheral devices by most embedded processors, such as SPI or I2C. Low-bandwidth peripheral devices for the line interface.
Finally, there are specialized devices for FPGAs, such as those with built-in high-speed transceivers that are suitable for operation at frequencies up to 3.125 GHz. These devices provide very high data bandwidth and are primarily used in complex communication systems within the FPGA fabric. Such devices will support the higher data rates of the system's internal RapidIO and/or HyperTransport interfaces. The embedded processor is likely to be located in the data path of this high-bandwidth data stream, but it wants to connect using a lower-performance FPGA/processor standard, in which case the FPGA is responsible for performing input data. Monitoring functions for statistical information collection or fault monitoring.
Advanced design tools such as SOPC Builder (part of Altera's Quartus II design software) facilitate the easy integration of IP cores with custom logic devices. This connects hardware-implemented peripheral devices (FPGAs) directly to embedded processors in the system through a simple (system address bus), complex (such as PCI-based IP core-based bus) or proprietary interfaces.
From a system design point of view, one of the main purposes of using a standard interface is to make peripheral devices transparent to the system software. If the system bus method is used, the FPGA will be treated as an additional memory conversion peripheral device without any influence from the FPGA content. In fact, peripheral devices inside the FPGA can even be completely redesigned without any changes to the system software. Even in the case where a bus such as PCI is used as an interface (the embedded processor has a built-in PCI bridge), the processor's programming model does not differ much from the traditional use of the PCI bus. FPGA can also pre-verify the system design in essence. With the constant updating of embedded processors, discrete peripheral devices do not necessarily follow the same interface or standard development trend. With peripherals implemented in FPGAs, peripherals can easily move to newer architectures (usually requiring minimal design effort), enabling peripherals to keep up with the performance of embedded processors. . Can also be based on the user's needs of the external device for accurate custom design, without having to take a compromise.
It can be seen from the above that while FPGAs are commonly used as system-level features (at the high end) and connected logic (at the low end), the use of the FPGA as an accompanying chip for an embedded processor can also yield more value. FPGAs provide a wide range of solutions to meet a variety of performance/price needs, and, using onboard memory, general-purpose I/O standards, and clock circuits, it can also provide discrete, "off the shelf" peripheral devices in many applications. There are no advantages. With high-end (Stratix), low-cost (Cyclone) and transceiver-based devices (Stratix GX) series, Altera Corporation has a full range of device products to meet the needs of various peripheral device expansion. In addition, only Altera Corporation can provide more than 50 IP cores on its own, coupled with advanced system design tools such as SOPC Builder, FPGAs will play an increasingly important role in the implementation of peripheral devices in embedded memory-based systems. Big role.
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